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Frequently Asked Questions


Question: GLOSSARY OF PRINTING & GRAPHIC TERMS
Ans:

A

Accordionfold
A bindery term for two or more parallel folds that result in a sheet that openslike an accordion

Againstthe grain
Perpendicular to the direction of the paper grain

Aliasing
A defect which occurs when a graphic file does not have enough resolution toreproduce image detail and causes visible jagged lines along the edges

Anti-aliasing
Technique of filling the edges of an object with pixels to eliminate jaggedlines and make it appear smoother

AqueousCoating
A fast-drying, water-based coating that is applied after printing that gives aglossy finish and protects the print’s surface

Artwork
In printing, this is the original copy which includes all text, graphics,photos and illustrations



B

Backup
To print the reverse side of a sheet already printed on one side

Bind
To fasten sheets or sections into brochures or booklets with the use of wire,thread, glue, staples, etc

Binding
The process by which sheets are fastened together which include cutting,trimming, collating, perforating, and folding to form the finished product

Bindery
The department in a printing company where finishing work is done such ascollating, folding and trimming of printed products

Bitmap
An image file format that refers to the rows and columns (map) of dots orpixels that form an image

BitmapImages
Computerized image made up of a collection of dots or pixels; these imagesappear blocky when you zoom in; also known as raster images

Blanket
The thick rubber coated pad of a printing press that transfers ink from theplate to the sheet

Bleed
Printing that goes beyond the edge of the final trim size

Blindembossing
A technique in which a design is pressed into a sheet without ink or foil,creating a raised image

Bondpaper
Durable and lightweight paper commonly used for letterheads and businessstationery

Border
Margin or line between the image area and the edge of the paper

Brightness
The brilliance or reflective quality of paper affecting contrast in printing

Bulk
The thickness of paper relative to its weight



C

C1S
Short for coating on one side of paper

C2S
Short for coating on both sides of paper

Caliper
Measurement of paper thickness expressed in thousandths of an inch

Camera-readycopy
Print ready layout of graphic and text

Castcoated
A type of coated paper with a high gloss enamel finish

Chrome
Color transparency

Coatedpaper
Paper with a thin surface coating of clay that produces a smooth finish

Collate
A finishing term for arranging pages or sheets in correct order before binding

ColorBalance
Refers to the proper ratio of cyan, magenta, and yellow ink during printing tokeep color consistency and produce the desired color of an image

Colorbar
Strips of color used as a tool to check color accuracy and density

Colorcorrection
Methods of adjusting and improving color qualities such as color balance,contrast, etc

Colorfilter
Filters used in color separation

Colorkey
A printer’s proof made from 4 acetate or transparent films of various colors,one sheet per process color, which when combined simulates the finished product

Colormatching system
Color chart in an electronic system used to compare, measure or mix colors

Colorseparations
Preparing a full-color image for printing by separating it into the four basicprocess colors: cyan, magenta, yellow and black

ColorSequence
The order in which the four-color process inks are printed on the press

Colorimeter
A light sensitive device used for measuring color with an exact responsesimilar to the human eye

Combbind
A method of binding by inserting a plastic comb through holes along the side oredge of a stack of pages

Compositefilm
Combination of two or more images on one or more films

Computer-to-Plate(CTP)
A technology that enables transfer of digital data directly to a metal platefor printing, eliminating the use of conventional films

Continuous-tonecopy
Illustrations and photographs that have a range of shades

Contrast
The range of difference between the darkest and lightest areas in an image

Copy
Any material (text or artwork) to be used in printing a piece

Coverpaper
A heavyweight paper commonly used for covers of books, brochures, catalogs andfolders

Creep
Creep is the shifting position of the page in a saddle-stitched bind. Creepmoves the inside pages away from the spine.

Crop
To cut off sides or portions of an image

Cropmarks
Lines at the edges of a sheet that show where the page will be trimmed

Crossover
Printing across the gutter or from one page to the facing page of a publication

Cure
The process of drying inks or coatings through chemical processes to developstrong adhesion

Cyan
Shade of blue; One of four basic ink colors used in 4 color printing process



D

Deboss
To press an image below the surface of paper

Densitometer
An instrument used to measure the density of colored ink to determineconsistency

Density
The degree of darkness of an image

Diazo
A light-sensitive coating used on plates in offset printing

Die
Metal plate cut for impressing a design or image on paper

Diecutting
A process of cutting paper in a shape or design using metal dies

DirectImaging
A technology that eliminates the use of film plates by directly transferringthe image from digital files to the press plates using a laser

DirectImaging Press (DI)
An offset press where the plate is imaged directly on the press with laser

Dot
The individual element of a halftones; also referred to as a “pixel”

Dotgain or spread
The spread of ink on paper; occurrence when dots print larger than they were onthe film

DotsPer Inch (DPI)
A measurement of resolution of a screen image or printed image defined by thenumber of dots that fit horizontally and vertically into one inch; The higherthe DPI, the sharper the image

Doubleburn
Exposing a printing plate to multiple images

Draw-down
A method of applying a thin coating or ink on paper to roughly determine color

Drop-out
Parts of artwork that are not reproduced

Dummy
A preliminary layout of a copy showing the position and general style made toresemble the finished product

Duotone
A halftone image made up of two colors

Duplexing
The ability of a press to print on both sides of a sheet of paper



E

EncapsulatedPostscript File (EPS)
An Adobe graphic file format for high resolution images; it translates graphicand text into code that tells a printer to print in the highest resolutionpossible and also has low resolution view files for quick screen viewing.

Emboss
Technique of pressing an image into paper so that creating a raised image

Emulsion
Photosensitive sensitive coating on printing plates and film



F

Feeder
Section of a printing press that separates the sheets and feeds them intoposition for printing

Flood
To cover a page completely with ink or varnish

Flop
The backside of an image

Foil
A thin metal applied to paper used in foil stamping and foil embossing

Foilemboss
To foil stamp or emboss an image on paper using a die

Foilstamping
Pressing a design or image on paper without ink using a foil and heated metaldie

Fourcolor process
The process of printing using the combination of four basic color inks (cyan,magenta, yellow and black) to produce a range of colors and create a colorimage

Fourover Four (4/4)
A print job with four color printing on both sides of the paper

Fourover One (4/1)
A print job with four color printing on the front side and one color (usuallyblack) on the back side

Fourover Zero (4/0)
A print job with four color printing on the front side and no printing on theback side



G

Gang
Economical way of printing by printing multiple images on the same sheet usingthe maximum sheet size

Ghosting
A printing defect where a faint unwanted image appears on a page

Gloss
Shiny coating applied to paper

Grain
The direction in which the fibers of a paper lie

GraphicDesign
The use of visual elements to express a message

Grayscale
An image made up of a range of shades of black and white

Grippers
The metal fingers on printing presses that hold the paper and controls it as itpasses through the press



H

Halftone
Pattern of dots within a fixed grid to reproduce a continuous-tone image

Hardcopy
A document or data printed on paper

Hickey
A spot or imperfection on a printed page caused by dust, lint or dried ink

Highlight
The lightest part in an image

HouseSheet
Paper kept in stock by a printer



I

Imagearea
Portion of a page or paper that can be printed on

Imposition
Arranging printed pages correctly so they will fold in the proper sequence

Impression
The pressure of a printing press on paper; image caused by pressure of a pressplate on paper

Indicia
Postal information preprinted on a mailing envelope or a piece in place of astamp

Inkfountain
The container on a printing press that hold the ink



K

Keyline
An outline drawing to show the exact size and position of an artwork



L



Laidfinish
A pattern of parallel lines running across the grain, creating a ribbed andhandmade effect

Linecopy
High contrast copy made up of solids or lines which do not require a halftonescreen; also called line art or line work

Linesper inch (LPI)
The number of lines of dots per inch in a halftone screen; the higher the LPI.,the sharper the image

Lithography
A method of printing where plates are chemically treated so that the image areaaccepts ink and non-image areas repel ink.



M

Magenta
Also known as process red; one of the 4 basic ink colors in process colorprinting; M in abbreviation CMYK

Mask
Blocking light from reaching parts of a printing plate, also called knockout

Matte
Dull non-glossy finish

Micrometer
Devise used to measure the thickness (caliper) of paper

Middletones
The tones in a photograph between highlights and shadows; must be balanced foraccurate reproduction

Moire
An undesirable screen pattern caused by incorrect screen angles



N

Negative
A film in which the white areas of the original image appear black and the blackareas appear white



O

OffsetLithography or Offset Printing
A common printing process in which the image to be printed is transferred froma metal plate to a rubber blanket onto paper

Offsetting
Transfer of ink or impression from one page to the opposite page

Opacity
The property of paper that minimizes the show-through on a printed sheet

Outlinehalftone
A halftone image with the background removed to outline the main image

Overrun
Production of larger quantities than ordered

Oversampling
Scanning at more than the ideal sampling rate



P

Pagecount
Total number of pages in a book or publication

PantoneMatching Systems (PMS) 
The standard color-matching system used by printers and graphic designers

PerfectBind
A binding technique in which pages are collated into a single sheet and thenglued together and attached to the cover with an adhesive

Perfectingpress
A printing press that prints both sides of a sheet at the same time

Perforation
Process of making holes or a series of cuts to make tearing or folding easy

Pica
A printer’s measure of type; One pica is 1/6 of an inch

Plate
A flat sheet of metal on which an image is reproduced using a printing press

PostScript
A page description language developed by Adobe Systems that tells a printer howan image is to be printed

PressLayout
See Ruleup

Pressure-sensitivepaper
Paper material with a self sticking adhesive protected by a backing sheet,usually used for labels and stickers

Processcolors
The four basic colors used in printing to simulate full spectrum color – Cyan(blue), magenta (process red), yellow (process yellow), black (process black)



R

Raster
To render an image, pixel by pixel, vertically and horizontally

Rasterimage
See bitmap image

RasterImage Processor (RIP)
A device that translates data into dots or pixels

Ream
A quantity of paper equivalent to 500 sheets

Resolution
Refers to the number of pixels an image expressed in pixels per inch (ppi) ordots per inch (dpi); the higher the number, the sharper the image

RGB
Refers to red, green, blue - the additive primary colors used for color videodisplay as on a computer screen

RichBlack
A darker and deeper black color created by combining other ink colors withblack ink. The values to create Rich Black is usually 40% Cyan, 30% Magenta,30% Yellow, 100% Black

Ruleup
A map or drawing showing how a printing job must be imposed with a specificpress and sheet size; also called Press Layout



S

Saddlestitch
A method of binding using staples in the seam or spine of a book or bookletwhere it folds

Scanner
An instrument used to make color separations; also an instrument to scan imagesor photos in desktop publishing

Score
A mark or crease pressed on paper to make folding easier

Scoring
The process of pressing a sheet of paper to create a groove or line for folding

Screenangles
The angles at which halftone screens are positioned to avoid unwanted patterns

Self-cover
The paper used as cover is the same as that used in the inside pages

Shadow
The darkest areas of a photograph or image

Sidestitch
To bind by stapling sheets along one side of a sheet

Signature
Term for a printed sheet after folding

Specifications
A precise description of features of a print order such as paper type andquantity

Spine
The back edge of a bound book or publication that connects the 2 covers

SplitRun
Printing of a book or booklet that has copies bound in different ways

Spoilage
Planned paper waste

Spotvarnish
Varnishing a specific part of a sheet

Stamping
Pressing a design or image onto paper with a metal die

Step-and-repeat
Technique of repeatedly exposing the same image on the plate in differentplaces

PaperType
The paper or material to be printed on

Stripping
The process of positioning film negatives for plate making

Substrate
Any surface or material on which printing is done



T

TaggedImage File Format (.TIFF) 
A standard graphic image file format often used for storing high resolutionimages that can easily handle up to 24 bits of photographic image color

Tint
A mixture of a hue with white

Tissueoverlay
A thin transparent paper placed over artwork for protection and may be used formarking printer instructions

Trapping
Printing of one ink over the other to prevent gaps from appearing

Tree-free
Refers to pulp or paper made without cutting down trees; paper made fromcotton, or hemp or other resources

Trimmarks
Marks on a printed sheet that show where to cut or trim the page

Trimsize
The final size of a printed image after trimming

Typesetting
To arrange or layout artwork and text for printing



U

Uncoated
Paper with no treatment or coating on the surface

Under-run
Production of fewer copies than ordered by customer

Up
Printing multiple copies of the same on the same sheet

UVcoating
Liquid glossy coating applied to paper’s surface and cured with ultravioletlight



V

Varnish
A clear liquid coating applied to printed sheet for protection and shine

Vignette
A halftone or image with whose background gradually fades to white

VectorImages 
Images made up of solids, lines and curves that can be scaled or edited withoutaffecting image resolution



W

Washup
Process of cleaning the parts of a printing press (rollers, plate, blanket,etc) so that a different ink can be applied

Waste
Planned spoilage

Watermark
A distinctive design created in paper during manufacturing that is visible whenthe paper is held up to the light

Web
The roll of printing paper used in web or rotary printing

Webpress
A high speed printing press that print on a continuous roll of paper or webrather than on individual sheets

WireO
A method of binding using double loops of wire through a hole

Withthe grain
Folding or feeding paper into the press parallel to the paper’s grain or fiber

Workand tumble
Printing the second side of a sheet by turning the sheet over from the gripperto the tail utilizing the same side guides and plate

Wovepaper
A paper having a uniform unlined surface and a smooth finish